An overview of the symptoms and causes of dyskinesia
Dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movement. It usually affects the head, or the arms and sometimes the entire body. It could also be painful. While suffering from dyskinesia, a person can experience mild to debilitating discomfort. Based on the type and severity of the condition, it could affect your daily activities as well. The frequency and the intensity of the condition cannot be predicted. Dyskinesia is often observed in people suffering from Parkinson’s disease. It could be caused due to levodopa treatment, which continues for a long time. It may also occur in people with movement disorders and is not restricted to Parkinson’s patients alone. People with brain injuries or others who take antipsychotic medications could also experience the condition. These uncontrollable movements could be as mild as minor body twitches to complete movement of the body.
Facts about dyskinesia
Symptoms of dyskinesia
Dyskinesia’s symptoms are different for each person. It may be mild with minor movements of the hands, feet, or head. It could also be more severe wherein multiple body parts start moving randomly. The symptoms tend to get worse over time and some symptoms start after a serious brain injury or they may get intense after trauma to the head. Dyskinesia is not related to the tremors experienced by Parkinson’s patients. Feeling excited or particularly stressed may trigger symptoms. Some of the symptoms of dyskinesia include:
Causes of dyskinesia
The main cause of dyskinesia is most likely due to the prolonged use of the drug levodopa. This drug is usually administered to patients with Parkinson’s disease as it helps in stabilizing dopamine levels in the brain. Younger patients may be at risk as they take the medication for a longer period of time and also use a higher dosage. Patients with Parkinson’s usually lack dopamine-producing brain cells. The effect of long term use of levodopa could be involuntary movements or dyskinesia. This is because after the drug wears off, the dopamine levels fall again. People usually take the medication multiple times in the day.
Tardive dyskinesia may occur due to certain antipsychotic medications. Researchers are still unsure about the exact cause of dyskinesia but they are aware that brain chemicals like serotonin, glutamate, and dopamine may be to blame due to improper functioning. Among these, imbalanced dopamine levels are the most likely cause.
Acid reflux during pregnancy: Symptoms and lifestyle changes to avoid them
Acid reflux is a condition wherein one experiences pain in the lower chest area, which is commonly referred to as heartburn. When the acids of the stomach travel back to the esophagus, this condition arises. During pregnancy, hormonal changes may cause the LES or lower esophageal sphincter to not function properly; this is the valve to carry food to the stomach. Also, towards the second and third trimester, the fetus grows and puts more pressure on the stomach, thereby causing food to re-enter the esophagus from the stomach.
Signs and symptoms
Some of the common signs and symptoms of acid reflux that one may experience during pregnancy are:
It must be noted that the occasional heartburn is usual and the pain may cease in some time. However, if the pain is persistent, this might be a cause of worry. A possible reason may be gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD, which is the next stage of acid reflux, or it may even be gastritis. Almost half of the women complain about heartburn during pregnancy. However, if it becomes more frequent, that is when a doctor should definitely be consulted for treatment.
Suggested lifestyle changes
There are several lifestyle changes that may be adopted in order to avoid heartburn or acid reflux, and make the pregnancy very safe for the mother as well as the baby. Here are some of the steps one can consider taking:
Apart from these lifestyle changes, there are several relaxation techniques such as yoga and guided imagery that may help getting respite from acid reflux.
7 common symptoms of acid reflux in infants
Acid reflux is a condition in which the acid produced by the stomach moves to the esophagus, causing a burning sensation of the stomach and discomfort in the chest that we normally refer to as heartburn. If you experience acid reflux twice a week or more, you may be suffering from a condition known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Infants may, however, be more highly susceptible to acid reflux as their lower esophageal sphincter (LES) may be weak. LES is a ring at the bottom of the esophagus where it connects with the stomach. It has been estimated that close to 50% of infants experience acid reflux due to weak or underdeveloped LES. Usually, infants at four months experience this condition the most and it tends to mellow down and vanish when they are around 12 to 18 months.
Here are the common signs and symptoms of acid reflux noticed in infants:
Vomiting or spitting
While spitting is normally considered normal in infants, forceful spitting may often be a sign of GERD. It is an important symptom in infants that are over a year old and still spit forcefully shortly after having meals. Also, spitting blood or any fluid that is green or yellow in color is a cause for worry. While usual spitting is painless, forceful spitting because of GERD may cause pain and discomfort.
Difficulty in eating and swallowing food
When partly digested particles from the stomach go back towards the esophagus, infants may become irritable and refuse eating or drinking at all. This is an important sign of acid reflux.
Hiccups and wet burps
An infant may also spit out liquid when he or she burps, which is among the signs and symptoms of acid reflux. Though not very common, this may also be a sign of GERD.
Inability to gain weight
Because of excessive vomiting, the infant may also lose a lot of weight. If the infant does not seem to be gaining weight as per a healthy growth chart, it can be a sign of acid reflux.
While infants tend to arch their bodies, any visible unusual arching may be a sign of pain that they may be experiencing because of stomach fluid that has made its way to the esophagus. However, one must not rule out arching as acid reflux completely. It could be indicative of another problem as well.
Coughing frequently or intermittent pneumonia
If food does not settle in the stomach, the infant may cough regularly which may be a sign of acid reflux. There is also a possibility that the food may be inhaled into the lungs, which may lead to pneumonia. In some rare cases, an infant may also develop asthma due to GERD.
Another key sign of acid reflux is disturbed sleep patterns. If you notice that the infant is not being able to sleep through the greater part of the night, it may be time to consult the doctor for acid reflux. For immediate solution, one may choose to feed the infant long before sleeping, so that stomach contents settle in by sleeping time.
Dupuytren’s contracture, a deformity, is triggered in the hand. It develops when a layer of tissue beneath the skin in the palm forms knots. These knots then go on to create a thick cord that pulls one or more fingers, causing them to bend. Unfortunately, this condition can make everyday tasks difficult like shaking hands, using gloves, and holding objects.
Symptoms of Dupuytren’s contracture
Typically, the two fingers that are farthest from the thumb are affected by Dupuytren’s contracture. Since this condition progresses at a very slow pace, it is quite difficult to understand or detect it early on. However, some of the symptoms that are most likely to be noted include:
Despite intense medical research, professionals are unable to point out the main cause of Dupuytren’s contracture. Currently, there is no evidence that points out specific factors that lead to its development. However, there are some factors that are believed to increase the risks of developing the condition with time.
Undoubtedly, Dupuytren’s contracture can cause inconvenience when performing different activities. In most cases, the patient does not require treatment as it can be managed with a little effort.
When the body loses bone mass faster than it can restore its bone health, this bone disease is known as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis causes bone loss and affects the mineral density that makes the bones weak and more susceptible to fractures. An estimated 10 million people in the country suffer from osteoporosis and 80% of the cases reported are women.
Identifying the symptoms
Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease as one may suffer from the symptoms and be completely unaware of the condition. There are a few ways to watch out for these osteoporosis symptoms that cause pain and can affect a person’s mobility. Some can be identified in the early stages while severe symptoms are only evident in the advanced stages.
Symptoms in the early stages
A developing condition of osteoporosis can be identified when even the slightest of impact from a fall or injury causes the bones to break. One can watch out for these osteoporosis symptoms in the early stages.
Symptoms in later stages
One can watch out for these osteoporosis symptoms in the advanced stages as the bone deterioration increases in intensity.
The doctor will conduct a bone density test to test the strength of the bones. One of the common tests is the central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test done using a special type of X-ray that emits a small amount of radiation. A diagnosis becomes all the more necessary after the age of 65 as bone density gradually decreases with age. One must also account for risk factors that can trigger early osteoporosis and have tests done accordingly.
One can take immediate action to prevent further bone loss and maintain bone density with simple changes in their diet and lifestyle.
The term osteoporosis translates to “porous bones”, and is a disease in which your body either loses too much bone, or doesn’t make enough bone, or in some cases even both. This results in weakening of the bones. A minor bump, or sneezing can also cause injuries to the body. Women are more prone to being diagnosed with osteoporosis.
How do you know you have osteoporosis?
While many diseases can be diagnosed as its symptoms are experienced in the early stages, but with osteoporosis, one can experience little to no symptoms. It progresses slowly, making the condition severe over time.
Some of the osteoporosis symptoms you need to watch out for are:
Experiencing back pain
Because of loss of bone density, you may have a fracture or a collapsed vertebrae. In this condition, back pain should be taken lightly as it can relate to your bone health.
Loss of height
As strange as this sounds, loss of height is one of the signs and symptoms of the onset of osteoporosis. This essentially denotes that your spine has been fractured making you unable to stand straight. Some of these spine fractures are painless so you may not recognize this sooner. Hence, you need to watch out for this osteoporosis symptom.
This is another sign that shows a decreased amount of bone density. With bones being more porous and soft, they are unable to hold your body up straight leading to a curved spine. This curved spine naturally leads to a stooped posture.
Fractures are not easy injuries, so if you are injuring your bones often, it is probably because your bones are porous and not strong enough.
Tips for a healthy lifestyle
While you cannot prevent any disease, you sure can manage it, and lower the risk of triggering it further. A healthy diet is extremely important, apart from any medications suggested by your doctor, and can help you lead a manageable life with this disease. Apart from nutrition, an exercise regime too can keep your health in check.
Remember, it’s never too late to start taking care of your health. Be aware and watch out for symptoms of osteoporosis for early diagnosis and treatment.
There are a variety of factors leading to the development of the symptoms of fibromyalgia, and it is important to determine the underlying symptoms. If anyone experiences symptoms of fibromyalgia, such as the ones listed below, a timely diagnosis has to be made before treatment can be initiated.
Fibromyalgia symptoms checklist
The following are some of the common symptoms of fibromyalgia:
A dull ache that has persisted over 3 months is not supposed to be concluded as a symptom of fibromyalgia. The pain must be present on both the sides of the body as well as below and above the waist.
Even after getting sufficient sleep, patients who are suffering from fibromyalgia have complaints of fatigue when they wake up. In most cases, patients with fibromyalgia symptoms could be suffering from other disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome.
Difficulties with cognition
Patients with fibromyalgia suffer from “fibro log” which leads to an impairment of the ability to focus, problems in paying attention, as well as concentrating on tasks involving the mind.
There are certain coexisting health issues such as irritable bowel syndrome, various types of headaches including a migraine, interstitial cystitis which is also known as a painful bladder, as well as disorders of the temporomandibular joint, so these can be considered symptoms of fibromyalgia as well.
Risk factors that can cause fibromyalgia
There could be a plethora of factors that could lead to the development of fibromyalgia:
Genetics: One could be prone to acquiring fibromyalgia through various gene mutations which tend to run in the family.
Infections: Fibromyalgia can often be triggered by certain illnesses.
Trauma: Traumatic incidents like car accidents could contribute to the development of fibromyalgia as well. It could also occur as a result of psychological stress.
Gender: The ratio of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia is higher in women as compared to men.
Family history: If there is a case of fibromyalgia in the family, the chances of developing fibromyalgia are higher.
Other existing disorders: One could also suffer from fibromyalgia in the case where one is already suffering from disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis.
Reasons why fibromyalgia causes pain
When affected with fibromyalgia, a change in the brain’s functions occurs. There are certain receptors in the brain—that help provide signals related to pain—which show an abnormal rise. With a rise in such chemicals and receptors, the neurotransmitters overreact due to oversensitivity whenever the body experiences pain. This is one of the major reasons why this condition causes extreme pain in the body.
Complications associated with fibromyalgia
Since fibromyalgia disturbs the normal sleep pattern of sleep, one might experience major problems in functioning normally either at home or at work. One could also feel depressed as a result of feeling lethargic all the time.
Diagnosis of fibromyalgia
When one has been experiencing persistent pain for over a period of three months and the underlying cause of the pain cannot be identified, there is a possibility that one could be suffering from fibromyalgia. Blood tests are done so that the possibility of other disorders having similar symptoms can be ruled out. These blood tests include a complete blood count, ESR, anti-CCP antibody, rheumatoid factor, as well as tests for thyroid function.
Treatment options for fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is often treated with a combination of medication as well as self-care. The objective is to minimize the symptoms and enhance the overall improvement in one’s health. There is no common treatment that works for all.
Medications for fibromyalgia
These medications are intended to reduce fibromyalgia-related pain and cause an improvement in sleep. Medications that are commonly used for relieving the symptoms of fibromyalgia include the following:
Pain relievers: Acetaminophen, naproxen sodium, or ibuprofen are pain relievers that are available over the counter. Tramadol might be prescribed by the doctor as well. Narcotics are avoided as they could lead to dependence and could result in the worsening of the pain in due course of time.
Antidepressants: The resultant pain, as well as fatigue caused due to fibromyalgia, may be moderated with the assistance of antidepressants like milnacipran or duloxetine. To improve the sleep cycle, the doctor may prescribe amitriptyline or cyclobenzaprine, which is a muscle relaxant.
Anti-seizure medications: The pain caused due to fibromyalgia might abate with epilepsy medications. Gabapentin can help one might experience relief from the pain.
Therapies for treating fibromyalgia
The severity of the fibromyalgia pain that impacts the body as well as one’s life could be lessened with the help of certain therapies such as the following.
Physical therapy: Through physical therapy, one’s stamina, strength, as well as flexibility could be improved resulting in the reduction of fibromyalgia pain. One might also benefit from aqua aerobics.
Occupational therapy: It is the responsibility of the occupational therapist to make sure that the necessary adjustments and modifications are done at one’s place of work as well as examine the way certain tasks are executed by the affected individual. This will ensure that the stress caused on the body is significantly reduced.
Counseling: Sometimes one cannot mentally cope with the changes occurring in the body due to fibromyalgia. With counseling, one will have more faith in themselves and understand better on how to overcome the challenges.
H. pylori infection or Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in one’s stomach during their childhood. It is also one of the common causes of peptic ulcers. According to the various medical research reports, around 50 percent of the world population is affected by H. pylori infection. However, most people don’t even realize it because they usually don’t fall ill from this bacterium. When you get signs and symptoms of peptic ulcer, your doctor will test whether you have H. pylori infection or not.
Symptoms of H. pylori infection
You might feel a burning pain in your stomach when you have an ulcer. This pain will stay for a few minutes or even hours. Generally, you will feel the pain of ulcer in the middle of the night or in between your meals whenever your stomach becomes empty. You will feel better when you take an antacid, drink milk, or eat something. Other signs and symptoms of H. pylori infection include the following.
Ulcers can sometimes cause bleeding in your stomach or intestine. This can really be dangerous for your health. In case you find out the below symptoms of H. pylori infection, then you should immediately look for medical help.
Although it happens in a rare case, you should know that the H. pylori infection could cause cancer in your stomach. One of the first symptoms of H. pylori infection which might cause cancer would be heartburn. After a certain time, you may notice the following symptoms.
Causes of H. pylori infection
How H. pylori infection affects a person is yet to be known by scientists and doctors. This bacterium could be passed from one person to another through direct contact with vomit, fecal matter or saliva. Also, H. pylori could be spread through contaminated water and food.
Risk factors of H. pylori infection
H. pylori infection often happens during childhood. The risk factors of H. pylori infection will depend on the living conditions in your childhood such as:
Complications associated with H. pylori infection
When should you visit a doctor?
You should be going to your doctor if you notice that the aforementioned symptoms of H. pylori infection is persistent. You need to take medical help if you notice any of the following experiences.
Doctors sometimes test normal people who don’t have any signs of H. pylori infection as a preventive measure. This happens especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. Although whether it is worth it to do so or not is still a controversial discussion among the doctors. Finally, do take evasive actions if you notice the aforementioned symptoms of H. pylori infection.
The prostate is the muscular gland in the reproductive system of men, which is very small in size. Almost 50% of men who are in their 60s face prostate enlargement, and this percentage reaches 90% for those who are 85 years old or above. The first sign of prostate enlargement is frequent urination at night. This condition of an enlarged prostate is also called BPH or Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. This condition takes place when the number of cells in the prostate gland begins to multiply, and the additional cells prevent the flow of urine by squeezing the urethra. Here are some of the causes and natural remedies for prostate enlargement.
Causes of an enlarged prostate
Enlarged prostate or BPH is a common medical condition for men who are aging, and men above 80 are the most likely to face some symptoms of BPH. However, the exact cause or the reason for BPH is still unknown. One of the factors for this could be the changes that occur in the generation of the male sex hormone with aging. Sometimes, prostate problems could be hereditary as well. Also, if there are any issues with the testicles, the person might also face the risk of developing BPH. Moreover, men whose testicles have been removed previously will not be facing the problem of an enlarged prostate.
Symptoms of BPH
Before proceeding further to know the remedies for prostate enlargement, you should be aware of the symptoms that are associated with BPH. These symptoms are mild at the beginning. However, they become more and more critical as time passes by. Therefore, it is extremely important to take the required action as soon as you face the following symptoms:
If you are continuously experiencing such serious issues, you need to seek advice from your doctor straight away. BPH is treatable; if you can treat these symptoms early, you will be able to avoid any complications arising with BPH.
Natural remedies for prostate enlargement
Foods that help treat BPH
A study conducted showed that people who consume a diet that includes leafy vegetables are less likely to face the dreadful issue of prostate enlargement. Also, fruits play a crucial role in eliminating the symptoms of BPH. Moreover, those who have a higher chance of getting affected by BPH should also increase their intake of tomatoes, because it is quite helpful in alleviating and curing the BPH symptoms. One thing that should be noted here is that a single vegetable or fruit will not be enough to treat BPH. A combination of fruits and vegetables can be considered as one of the remedies for prostate enlargement.
Stinging nettle is undoubtedly one of the best remedies for prostate enlargement. When you touch its leaves, the hair on it will cause intense pain. However, if one uses it as medicine, it can have a wondrous effect on your prostate problem. The nettle root is the part commonly used to treat BPH in Europe. However, nothing has been found in various studies conducted on stinging nettle to prove that only using it will cure prostate enlargement. Furthermore, using it in combination with saw palmetto or pygeum can be a good idea for treating BPH.
Pygeum is actually derived from the bark of an African plum tree. From the ancient times, it is being used in the treatment of urinal problems. Pygeum is often used to treat BPH naturally. Though there is not enough conclusive evidence that could show the efficacy of pygeum in treating BPH, some small studies conducted on pygeum showed that it could help in emptying the bladder and improving the urine flow.
It is a herbal medication that is actually a combination of various plants and contains substances like cholesterol. Several studies have found that beta-sitosterol can treat many symptoms of BPH and especially, it is effective in developing the strength in urine flow. Scientists have propounded that the fatty substances found in beta-sitosterol can work wonderfully when it comes to treating BPH.
Saw palmetto is undoubtedly one of the best natural remedies for prostate enlargement. This fruit from a tree that is quite like the palm tree has been used as an alternative medicine for urinary problems for years now. Various studies conducted on saw palmetto have concluded that it can be very useful when it comes to treating BPH.
It is important to keep in mind that even if the medication is labeled “natural,” it may not be safe to use for you. Therefore, before taking any medication that is tagged as natural, ensure that you gather information about it. Also, it is important to consult your medical professional even in the case of natural remedies in order to avoid any kind of side effects and get the best results.
It is estimated that more than 30 million adults in the country are living with kidney disease and most are not aware of it. There are a number of visible signs of kidney disease, but sometimes people associate them with other health problems. Most of them are unable to identify kidney failure symptoms until a very late stage, that is, when the kidneys are failing or when there is a large amount of protein in the urine.
Causes of kidney failure
Chronic kidney disease befalls when a disease or condition impairs the kidney function, which leads to kidney damage over several months or years. The main causes of kidney illness are diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, smoking, obesity, abnormal kidney structure, and older age. Sometimes, if one has a family history of kidney disease, it can also trigger the chances of having kidney failure.
Kidney failure symptoms are usually subtle and most people don’t pay attention to them. If one notices most of the following, it can be a sign of kidney failure.
Being more tired, with lost energy and having trouble concentrating
A critical decrease in kidney function can lead to the accumulation of toxins and impurities in the blood. This can make people feel tired, weak and can make it hard to focus. Anemia is also one of the kidney failure symptoms, which can make an individual weak and exhausted.
Having trouble sleeping
The toxins stay in the blood rather than flushing out from the body through the urine when the kidneys aren’t filtering properly. Physical problems can contribute to abrupt sleep patterns. Compared to the general population, the sleep disorder is very common in those with chronic kidney disease.
Having dry and itchy skin
Healthy kidneys perform numerous important functions of the body. They dismiss waste and extra fluids from the body, help the body to produce red platelets, keep bones strong and also work to keep up the appropriate quantity of minerals in the blood. Dry and itchy skin is caused because of the lack of minerals. This can be an indication of the mineral and bone disease that is one of the main kidney failure symptoms. This occurs when the kidneys are not capable of keeping the correct balance of minerals and nutrients in the blood.
Feeling the urgency to frequently urinate
One of the major kidney failure symptoms is the urgency to urinate all the more regularly, particularly at night. The increase in the need to urinate is caused by the damage caused to the kidney’s filtering units called nephrons. This is a symptom of a urinary disease, or in men, it may be because of prostate enlargement.
Noticing blood in the urine
Healthy kidneys generally keep the blood cells in the body while filtering wastes from the blood to make urine; however, with nephron damage, these blood cells leak out into the urine. In addition to the kidney illness, blood in the urine can be a symptom of tumors, kidney stones or contamination.
Producing foamy urine
Too much protein is flushed out in the urine because of kidney dysfunction leading to foamy urine. This condition is called proteinuria. This usually happens in the later stages of kidney failure.
Experiencing persistent puffiness around the eyes
When there is nephrotic damage, kidneys leak a large amount of protein in the urine, rather than retaining it in the body. This gives rise to fluid retention in the body leading to puffiness on the face and around one’s eyes, which is one of the common kidney failure symptoms.
Swelling in ankles and feet
One of the kidney failure symptoms, swollen feet is caused due to the retention of sodium. Swelling in the lower extremities can also be a signal of heart disorder, liver ailment, and persistent leg vein problems.
Having a poor appetite
This symptom is very common with almost all the diseases. However, a buildup of toxins due to the decreased kidney function can be one of the reasons for having a poor appetite. Worsening of appetite occurs with disease progression.
Experiencing muscle cramping
The impaired kidney function may result in electrolyte imbalance. For instance, low calcium levels and poorly maintained phosphorus may result in muscle cramping.
Even though the body shows many kidney failure symptoms, the only way to know if one has a kidney disease is to get tested. It is important to get tested annually for kidney disease if one is at a risk due to high blood pressure, diabetes, a family history of kidney failure or if one is older than 60 years. Moreover, if one notices the kidney failure symptoms, it should be clearly communicated to one’s healthcare practitioner.