Growth Chart and the Measurement Process of a Child’s Development
Growth Chart and the Measurement Process of a Child’s Development

Growth is one of the most important factors for a newborn baby. It is important to look at the child growth chart to identify the physical growth and the child’s development as an individual. The growth chart indicates that the kid is gaining weight and inches that ensure their development. Each age has a generalized rate of the child’s development, and you will know if your kid is gaining more weight than usual or vice versa.

The importance of percentiles

When you visit the doctor, they will measure the height, weight, and head circumference of your child and will also help you understand the percentiles of measurement. The percentile number will help you understand your baby’s growth in an effective way; for example, if the doctor says your kid is taller than 85 percentiles, it means your child is taller than 85 percent kids of their age.

How to chart your kid’s growth

Growth and development are very important for a child; it is also important for the parents to keep an eye on the growth and development of their baby. The child growth chart can be considered a reliable method to keep an eye on the development and growth of your child. Nowadays, you can find the child growth chart easily on the internet, which you can use. If your child is below 2 years of age, we recommend that you use a standardized chart like the growth charts from the World Health Organization that maintain international standards framed in the year 2006.

On the other hand, if your child is older than 2 years, you can follow the growth charts prepared by the National Center for Health Statistics. You can also find growth charts for premature babies and toddlers with specific conditions like achondroplasia, Prader-Willi syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and others.

Here are the basics regarding the normal growth and development according to the age of a child that you can refer to and keep a check on your child’s growth and development.

At the time of birth, a child is usually 19.5 inches long and weighs about 7.25 pounds. The National Center for Health Statistics also says that boys acquire a head circumference of about 13.5 inches, whereas girls’ head circumference is somewhere around 13.3 inches.

Birth to 4 days
The child loses 5-10 percent of his total weight due to the loss of fluid through the passing of stools and urination.

5 days to 3 months
Your child can gain about 28 grams on a daily basis during this phase. You can see that the child will return to their birth weight during the second week. A growth surge is generally seen in the third week, and you can see additional signs of development by the end of the sixth week.

3 months to 6 months
Generally, the child gains around half a pound in 14 days, and you will notice that the baby’s weight has become double since birth when they are 6-months old.

7 months to 12 months
During this period, a child gains around a pound per month. You have to remember that a child burns increased calories during this period. Moreover, it is the time when the child learns to crawl. You can also see a growth of 10 inches in height by their first birthday, and the weight is tripled from their birth weight. You can also notice a significant change in the head circumference, where it is likely that it has increased by about 4 inches.

Growth for toddlers and big kids

1 year old
At this period, toddlers grow slowly. A child is likely to gain about half a pound in a month, and also, there is a noticeable growth of 4-5 inches in their height.

2 years old
The kid is likely to gain about 3 inches by the end of their third year. and then they will gain 4 more pounds. During this period, you can assume their adult height.

3 and 4 years old
Now a child will gain about 4 pounds and 3 inches every year. You can also notice the reduction of baby fat from their face.

5 years old and more
The child will gain about 4 pounds and 2 inches till their puberty. In general, boys hit the adult height by the age of 17, whereas girls reach their adult height two years after their first period. This is how a child develops their growth from the time of their birth. The child growth chart will help you understand the rate of your child’s growth, and you can adjust the measures to be taken according to the statistics provided in the chart.

Thus, maintaining a child growth chart acts as a perfect tool to keep track of your child’s development. In addition, it will also let you constantly monitor the growth of your child. So, consult your child’s doctor and seek the help of maintaining a growth chart.

A Guide to Identifying Alzheimer’s Disease and its Various Stages
A Guide to Identifying Alzheimer’s Disease and its Various Stages

Learning that a loved one has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s can take a toll on anybody. This progressive disease is emotionally and physically traumatizing as it gradually affects one’s memory, their ability to think and perceive. In order to manage the symptoms effectively, knowing about the stages of progress and treatment options is crucial. The experience of the disease may differ from person to person but the trajectory from the beginning to the end of the illness is the same. Given below are the 7 identified Alzheimer’s stages:

Preclinical Alzheimer’s
The preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s is not clearly observed and signs of memory loss or dementia are not evident. Family history alone may denote the risk of this stage or else one’s regular physician may recognize biomarkers signifying the risk, suggesting a visit to a neurologist.

Normal forgetfulness
After crossing 65, it is common to forget things. But at stage two of Alzheimer’s, the tendency to forget things tends to increase rapidly than in people of the same age group who do not suffer from the disease.

Mild decline
The symptoms at this stage are less clear and it usually continues for about 7 years. The symptoms gradually become obvious within 2- 4 years. Only those who are very close may detect the signs since they are still quite subtle. The quality of work may decrease and the victims may find it difficult to learn new skills. Other signs of the third stage include things like getting lost in a well-known route, difficulty in remembering correct words/names, an inability to remember recent news, inability to remember new names/ people, frequent loss or misplacement of an item, a decrease in concentration.

Moderate Decline
This 4th Alzheimer’s stage lasts almost two years and marks the commencement of identifiable Alzheimer’s disease. In this stage, precise indications of the ailment are clear. Mood swings become more frequent. The signs of decline appearing in this stage include an awareness of present or latest events decreases, recollecting past events is difficult, there is a marked difficulty in dealing with finances and bills, and counting backward from 100 becomes a near impossibility.

Moderate dementia
Great support is required at stage 5 which tends to last for about one-and-a-half years. During this stage, people start to require help for daily activities. They may face trouble in getting dressed, particularly with buttons or hooks, they may not be able to remember simple details like phone numbers or an address, they may also undergo a constant state of confusion and puzzlement without any evident trigger.

Still, at this stage, people can retain basic functionality like bathing and go to the toilet without any help. Generally, they may also be able to remember the names of their family members.

Fairly severe Alzheimer’s
People in this stage of Alzheimer’s require continuous overseeing and often need professional care. Five recognizable features are evident during the course of the two-and-a-half years for which this stage might last:

  • Apart from not being able to select their clothes, someone on this stage of Alzheimer’s will have to be assisted in putting them on properly.
  • Oral hygiene starts to decline and they need assistance to adjust water temperature prior to baths.
  • Initially, few patients may not remember to flush the toilet or even discard tissue papers in the bin. Further, when the disease advances, they will not be able to control their bladder and bowels and require help with cleanliness.
  • They might begin stammering and forgetting words more frequently.
  • They may fear the thought of staying alone at home or stepping out of the house without any assistance.

Severe Alzheimer’s
This is the last stage of Alzheimer’s. In the final stages of Alzheimer’s, the patient becomes fully dependent on their caregiver lose their ability to communicate. They are unable to recognize sound and speed, muscle memory fails the so need help to sit up or walk around, they cannot emote, they cannot hold their head up. and The associate-stages last around one to two-and-a-half years and due to rigid body movements, they will feel severe pain. About 40% of people with Alzheimer’s disease experience shortening plus hardening of tendons, muscles, etc. in addition to the above-mentioned signs.

Treatment and prevention
Even though there is no cure for Alzheimer’s, preventing the symptoms by taking proper treatment can inhibit the disease from progressing at a fast rate. Changes in diet, supplements, body and mind exercise and medications may have a helpful effect on the symptoms. Medications help to control neurochemicals for communication skills, thinking, and memory.

A person who is inflicted with Alzheimer’s will have an average lifespan of 4-8 years after being diagnosed with the disease. While the patient may not feel the symptoms themselves or be in denial, those around them will be able to do so. Hence it is vital to take notice of any obvious shifts in memory or mental functioning and seek assistance in the early Alzheimer’s stages before waiting for the situation to worsen.

Symptoms of Different Types of Epileptic Seizures
Symptoms of Different Types of Epileptic Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that causes seizures. A person is said to have epilepsy if he experiences two or more seizures, a disorder in the electrical communication between neurons in the brain, separated by a period of 24 hours. The consequences of an epileptic seizure can vary from uncontrolled jerking movement to momentary loss of awareness. These can also vary in frequency, from several times in a day to only once in a year. Understanding epilepsy seizure symptoms is the first step in treating this disorder.

Types of epileptic seizures and their symptoms
Differentiating seizure types is important for causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Epilepsy seizure symptoms are broadly classified into two groups – focal seizures and generalized seizures.

Focal seizures are the ones which initially affect only one hemisphere of the brain. There are four lobes in each hemisphere of the brain. The seizure symptoms vary based on where the seizure has occurred. This is further divided into two categories:

Focal aware seizure – This affects only a small area of the brain and people experiencing this type of seizure remain conscious. The common symptoms include the following.

  • A sudden feeling of fear, anger, anxiety
  • Falling or moving sensations
  • Altered sense of hearing
  • Strenuous speech or incapable of speaking
  • If asleep, hallucinations or illusions
    Focal impaired awareness seizure
    – This is associated with unilateral cerebral hemisphere and results in impairment of awareness. The common symptoms include the following.
  • A feeling of déjà vu, a feeling that a person has lived through the present situation
  • A feeling of euphoria or depersonalization
  • Display of automatisms like, lip smacking or swallowing

Generalized seizures – These are typically characterized by no apparent cause. Unlike focal seizures, it affects more or the whole part of the brain. This is further classified into the following types.

Tonic-clonic seizures
This type of seizure, also called convulsion, affects the entire brain and is most commonly associated with epilepsy. It is a combination of tonic and clonic seizures. Symptoms of the tonic phase are as follows:

  • Stiffened muscles followed by their extension
  • Cry or groan heard due to contraction of chest muscles
  • The person may lose consciousness and fall on the floor
  • Biting of tongue or cheek

The symptoms observed during the clonic phase are as follows:

  • Rhythmic and rapid jerking of arms and legs
  • A person may roll and stretch as seizure spreads
    Absence seizures
    Also referred to as petit mal seizures, it is associated with a lapse in awareness, which begins and ends abruptly and lasts only for a few seconds. These epilepsy seizure symptoms might include the following.
  • The person may look as if he is daydreaming or staring aimlessly
  • Eyes may turn upwards and lids might blink
  • The person might rub fingers or make other hand movements
  • The person does not fall over and may return to the normal position immediately after seizure ends
  • Typical absence seizures last for less than 10 seconds, whereas atypical absence seizures last for up to 20 seconds
    Atonic seizures

    Atonic seizures cause partial or complete loss of muscle tone due to temporary alterations in brain function. The seizure starts in one or both areas of the brain, and the body suddenly goes limp. The common symptoms include the following.
  • In the sitting position, the upper body may slump over
  • In standing position, the person may fall on the floor
  • There is a noticeable head drop, in case of loss of tone in neck muscles
  • A seizure may last only up to 15 seconds
    Tonic seizures

    This seizure is associated with the sudden stiffening of the body, arms or legs. The common symptoms are:
  • A person may experience a small change in awareness
  • A person may turn blue if breathing is impaired
  • These are short and last for up to 20 seconds
    Clonic seizures

    Clonic seizures happen with the continuous rhythmic jerking of the body or parts of the body. These movements are difficult to seize with repositioning of body parts. These types of epilepsy seizure symptoms include the following.
  • Shaking of the limbs in unison
  • Regular jerking movements of body parts
  • Stiffening of muscles which can last for up to 2 minutes

    Myoclonic seizures
    This seizure involves very brief muscle contraction resulting in jerky movements. The typical symptoms are:

  • Sudden jerks and twitching of the body
  • Arms may fling out together with a simultaneous head nod
  • Person is unconscious during the seizure, but the extremely short duration makes him appear as if he is conscious
  • Babies can experience shuddering attacks
  • Severe cases may show distorted movement and even limit the person’s capability to eat, walk or talk

Epilepsy can be a result of a genetic or acquired cause. The best treatment for epilepsy depends on the diagnosis of seizure type. The treatment methods can range from consuming anti-epileptic medicines to herbal and dietary therapies, to involvement of equipment and surgeries. Not all cases of epilepsy are life long, and many people improve to the point that treatment may no longer be required. Finally, patients with this medical condition deserve the love and support of their families to manage this condition.

5 Stages of Parkinson’s Disease
5 Stages of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease affects a patient’s nervous system and their body’s movements. Most people have heard of this illness, but not many know about the stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive condition that worsens with time. One can consult a doctor to understand the stages involved in detail. This article will aim to give a brief overview of this condition’s stages. However, since this disease affects the brain, the stages and their symptoms may differ from one individual to another. Some patients exhibit severe signs while others can continue to function normally. The speed at which it progresses also differs.

One can understand the stages briefly on the basis of the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Physicians also use this scale. It is quite easy to classify and treat patients according to it. Here are the five stages of Parkinson’s disease:

The first stage
The symptoms of the first stage differ for different patients. However, if one identifies the signs in the early stages, it becomes easy to treat the condition. One may only observe some symptoms in the beginning, and these occur on one side of the body. Known as unilateral involvement, it doesn’t hamper one’s ability to function normally. At times, these mild signs might go unnoticed by the doctor as well as the patient. The most common symptoms in the first stage are:

  • Tremors
  • Rigidity in the hand
  • Clumsiness in the hand or leg
  • Rigidity or clumsiness on one side of the face

None of these symptoms are apparent, and hence, doctors might wait it out before diagnosing it as the first stage of Parkinson’s disease.

The second stage
The signs or symptoms may not be apparent even in the second stage of Parkinson’s disease. This stage is a part of the early stages, and therefore it isn’t all that obvious that one has Parkinson’s disease. The symptoms are bilateral and not unilateral in this stage. Thus, the disease now affects both sides of the body. Some patients might exhibit symptoms in and around the midriff region. However, it is not necessary that these signs are symmetrical, which is what makes diagnosis difficult. It might take a few months to a few years for this condition to progress from stage one to stage two. One can observe the following problems in the second stage of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Complete loss of facial expressions
  • Improper or no blinking movements
  • Speech impairment
  • Changes in the tone of one’s voice
  • Inability to speak loudly and clearly for a long time
  • Slur
  • Stiff muscles
  • Problems in the spinal cord
  • Hunched back
  • Slowing down in general

Even at this stage, in spite of all the problems, an individual can function more or less normally, which is how this condition can go unnoticed. Diagnosis at this stage is possible if patients suffer from tremors. However, if the person is old, there is a chance that they might consider it a sign of aging and ignore it.

The third stage
At this stage, it becomes obvious that the patient is unwell. A person with Parkinson’s disease might show some symptoms like a complete loss of balance. The slowness at this stage is also quite noticeable. A person in the third stage of Parkinson’s disease might find themselves falling randomly. Since the coordination of muscles has slowed down considerably, people are unable to prevent the fall.

It is quite easy to diagnose Parkinson’s disease at this stage. To confirm the condition, the physician will stand behind the patient and pull their shoulders. If they can prevent the fall and regain their balance, they are good to go. However, if they can’t, then they may need treatment. One should not worry about this test as the doctor will prevent any falls.

At this stage too, a lot of patients can manage their daily schedules all by themselves. They can dress up and get ready without any hassles. The patients can also eat without anyone else’s help.

The fourth stage
At this stage, a patient may start to lose their sense of independence. They can no longer function normally. Walking and standing become problematic. However, a lot of patients can get by with some external help. They may be able to walk around with the help of a walker. However, it is no longer possible to live independently, and the patient will need a lot of help from friends and family. The extent to which the patient needs help is directly proportional to the severity of the disease. The transition from the third to the fourth stage is quite difficult to define as they have overlapping symptoms.

The fifth stage
This is the final stage of Parkinson’s disease. A person may need medical help for their daily functions. Sometimes, patients may also need to undergo brain surgery.

Know More about Fibromyalgia Tender Points
Know More about Fibromyalgia Tender Points

Fibromyalgia is the second most common disease in the country that affects the muscles and bones. The most common symptoms of the disease are feeling fatigued for no apparent reason and extreme pain in the joints. One of the main problems of this disease is that you may or may not know that you are suffering from the disease. The disease is poorly understood and identified by the masses. There is no specific test to determine whether you are suffering from the disease. The disease has no cure and its symptoms can be managed through treatment and by bringing about certain changes to your lifestyle. If you are suffering from the symptoms of the condition, make sure to visit a doctor immediately. Immediate treatment can help you effectively manage the disease. There are certain areas on the body that appear to be tender for those people who are suffering from the condition. These are called fibromyalgia tender points.

What are fibromyalgia tender points?
When suffering from fibromyalgia, there are certain areas on the body that become painful when pressure is applied to them. These areas are referred to as fibromyalgia tender points. While fibromyalgia tender points are also referred to as trigger points, they are not essentially triggered points. Trigger points can cause other parts of the body to pain when pressure is applied to them.

For example, if pressure is applied to your elbow, you may feel pain in your hand. Some people may have trigger points and fibromyalgia tender points at the same time. Here are a few of the most common fibromyalgia tender points on the body. Be aware of these points and visit a doctor if you are feeling pain in these areas. It could be a sign that you are suffering from fibromyalgia and your doctor may prescribe medications. Some of the key indications include:

  • Upper chest pain
  • Pain at the back of your head
  • Pain in the outer elbows
  • Knee pain
  • Pain in the hips
  • Pain at the top of the shoulders

You may or may not experience constant pain in these tender points. Pain in fibromyalgia tender points may come and go with time. It is up to you to identify this pain and seek immediate treatment for the same. Tender points may also arise as a result of medical conditions like polymyalgia. The difference is that the pain associated with fibromyalgia tender points is much more severe and widespread. There are several rheumatic diseases and regional pain syndromes that can cause symptoms that may seem similar to the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Lyme disease can all lead to widespread pain and lead to tender areas arising in the body.

In the past, to be diagnosed with fibromyalgia, you needed to experience pain in at least 11 of the 18 tender points in the body. Widespread pain in the body along with the exhibition of a few more symptoms of fibromyalgia is enough to diagnose the disease in today’s age. Be aware of all the other symptoms of the disease and visit a doctor at the earliest if you are suffering from pain in these tender points as well as the other symptoms associated with the disease. Early treatment can go a long way in ensuring that you live a normal life.

Other symptoms of fibromyalgia
Apart from feeling widespread pain in these tender areas, there are several other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. You may feel fatigued despite not doing much, experience trouble concentrating, anxiety, and depression among other conditions. Some people may experience all these symptoms, while other people may experience only a few of them. Symptoms vary from person to person and cannot be measured with the help of a test. Look out for these symptoms and report it to a doctor as soon as they appear. Some symptoms may be confused with other diseases so make sure to describe the type of pain you are suffering from to help your doctor successfully diagnose fibromyalgia. Knowledge about the symptoms of fibromyalgia can go a long way in helping you.

Fibromyalgia is more common in women than men. It generally affects women aged in their twenties and thirties. Understanding and identifying the symptoms of the disease is important so that you can determine that you are suffering from the condition. While the condition is not life-threatening, it can bring about certain changes to your lifestyle. Visit a doctor if you are suffering from the symptoms of the disease to seek treatment. Look out for fibromyalgia tender points and all the other symptoms of the condition. Stress management techniques, maintaining a healthy diet, medications, and exercising for at least 150 minutes every week can go a long way in helping you lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

Lung Cancer – Stages and Treatment Options
Lung Cancer – Stages and Treatment Options

Lung cancer is one of the most unpleasant forms of cancer. Due to the large size of the lungs, tumors can grow in them for significantly long periods before being detected. The symptoms of lung cancer include coughing and fatigue. It is difficult to identify this disease by these symptoms alone, and thus, it is hard to get an early diagnosis. There are two types of lung cancer – non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The stages of lung cancer depend on whether cancer has spread from the lungs to other organs, the lymph nodes, or whether it is still local. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can help in treating this condition effectively. Nevertheless, people with lung cancer do have access to various treatment options. Before we get to these treatment options, let’s understand the two types of lung cancer, their stages, and how they affect people in the country.

Non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases in the country. Adenocarcinoma, a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, is the most common form, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (25%) and large cell carcinoma (10%).

Stages of non-small cell lung cancer

Stage I: Cancer is local and has not spread to the lymph nodes yet.

Stage II: Cancer has started spreading to other areas of the lungs as well as the lymph nodes nearby.

Stage III: In this stage of the disease, cancer spreads to the middle of the chest, the lymph nodes, and the lungs. It is also known as “locally advanced disease.” It has two subtypes.

  • If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes present on the same side of the chest where cancer originated, it is called stage IIIA.
  • If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes present on the other side of the chest, or just above the collarbone, it is called stage IIIB.

Stage IV: This is the most advanced form of cancer. It refers to the stage where cancer has spread to the lungs, liver, and other organs, as well as to the fluid in the area around the lungs and other parts of the body.


  • Surgery: Stage I and II non-small cell lung cancers are treatable by removing the tumor in the lungs. The surgeon removes the section or lobe of the lung that has the tumor. It is the best treatment option for stage I and stage II lung cancer.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation: People who are undergoing surgery to remove the tumor are advised to get chemotherapy after the procedure. Doctors would particularly recommend this for people who have stage II or stage IIIA lung cancer. For tumors that cannot be removed via surgery (stage III and stage IV), chemotherapy and radiation are the best treatment options to cure lung cancer.
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer treatment. It makes use of the patient’s immune system to treat lung cancer. It fights against dangers like infections and viruses as well as growing cancer cells.

Small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer accounts for around 15 percent of the total lung cancer cases in the country. It tends to spread more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer but is more responsive to chemotherapy.

Stages of small cell lung cancer

Limited stage: The cancer is present on one side of the chest and involves just one part of the lung as well as the lymph nodes that are nearby.

Extensive stage: Cancer has spread to other areas of the chest as well as other regions of the body.


  • Chemotherapy and radiation: Chemotherapy is an essential part of small cell lung cancer treatment. Radiation treatment may also be used, depending on the stage of cancer. For limited stage small cell lung cancer, chemotherapy in combination with radiation is the best option. For people who have extensive stage small cell lung cancer, chemotherapy alone is the best lung cancer treatment option.
  • Surgery: Surgery may be a good option for people who have limited stage small cell lung cancer without tumors in the lymph nodes. Patients also undergo chemotherapy after getting surgery.

If one gets diagnosed with lung cancer, they must get immediate treatment for this condition. It is relatively easy to treat lung cancer in the early stages. However, it is difficult to detect early-stage lung cancer, which further complicates matters. One can explore the lung cancer treatment options mentioned above and take a doctor’s advice regarding the best treatment for them.

Types and Treatment of Chronic Psoriasis
Types and Treatment of Chronic Psoriasis

Is your skin itchy, inflamed, flaky or scaly? You are probably headed toward developing psoriasis! Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the skin that ranges from mild to severe. Those affected by chronic psoriasis develop scaly patches on their skin that are inflamed, itchy, and painful. Depending on the symptoms, psoriasis is classified into various types. Chronic psoriasis treatment is based on the symptoms and the extent to which it has spread.

Like all autoimmune diseases, there is no specific cause for chronic psoriasis. Contributing factors for chronic psoriasis are mental stress and anxiety, low self-esteem, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors. Chronic psoriasis treatment depends on the severity of the condition and aims at alleviating the associated symptoms.

Common symptoms of psoriasis
Psoriasis occurs due to changes that occur beneath the skin rather than on the skin. Although psoriasis is classified into different types based on appearance and symptoms, the following are the common symptoms:

  • Red patches on the skin
  • Scaly, silvery patches
  • Itchy skin
  • Swelling of joints, stiffness or pain

If you need information on psoriasis and its symptoms, you should know that they are specific to the type of psoriasis.

Types of chronic psoriasis
Classifying chronic psoriasis helps in deciding the line of treatment. For some only one type of psoriasis exists, whereas for others a combination of two or more types may exist. In some cases, once the symptoms of existing psoriasis wear away, a new type may develop in response to a trigger. There are 7 types of psoriasis as listed below:

  • Plaque psoriasis – Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of chronic psoriasis. It is also referred to as psoriasis vulgaris. It is characterized by raised, inflamed, reddish skin covered by silvery white scales. It causes itching and burning sensations. Elbow, lower back, scalp, and knees are common places where plaque psoriasis occurs.
  • Guttate psoriasis – This type of psoriasis commonly occurs in young adults and children. This type occurs in the form of tiny, pink-red spots on the skin near your trunk, upper arms, thighs, and scalp. Stress, skin injury, certain medication, or upper respiratory infections may act as triggers for guttate psoriasis.
  • Pustular psoriasis – This is an uncommon type of psoriasis that occurs mainly in adults. It is characterized by pus-filled bumps that are surrounded by reddish skin. It may occur in one area of the body or cover the entire body (generalized pustular psoriasis), the latter occurrence requires immediate medical attention. Generalized pustular psoriasis may be triggered by topical medicine, stress, infection, exposure to chemicals or sudden stoppage of medication.
  • Inverse psoriasis – Inverse psoriasis is characterized by bright, shiny, red skin devoid of scales. It usually occurs in armpits, under breasts, groin, and skin folds around genitals. This condition is worsened by scratching or sweating.
  • Erythrodermic psoriasis – This is a very rare type of psoriasis, but manifests into a serious condition. It occurs almost all over the body and causes fiery skin that looks burnt. Severe itching or peeling, changes in body temperature, or faster heart rate is associated with this type of psoriasis. Complications like pneumonia, congestive heart failure may occur due to erythrodermic psoriasis.
  • Nail psoriasis – Most people affected with some form of psoriasis have changes in nail structure. Psoriatic arthritis usually leads to nail psoriasis that causes pitting of nails, tender and painful nails, separation of the nail from the bed, changes in nail color, or chalk like deposits under nails.
  • Psoriatic arthritis – This is a combination of psoriasis and arthritis. Characteristics of psoriatic arthritis are pain and stiff joints, sausage-like swelling of fingers and toes, and warm, discolored joints.

Treatment for psoriasis
Treatment for psoriasis depends on the type and severity. Various methods are listed below for various types of psoriasis:

Plaque psoriasis: Application of over-the-counter cortisone cream or ointment-based moisturizer to prevent dryness and irritation of skin is the first recommendation by the dermatologist. In some cases, light therapy may be needed. A combination of light therapy and ointment application can also be an option for this type of scalp psoriasis treatment.

Guttate psoriasis: The underlying infection is treated first for this type of psoriasis. Additionally, steroid creams, light therapy, and oral medications may be required.

Inverse psoriasis: Application of topical steroid creams, oral medication, and light therapy is the treatment protocol for inverse psoriasis. Medication to reduce bacterial or yeast growth also may be recommended.

Pustular psoriasis: Treatment depends on the size of the area affected. Corticosteroid creams are prescribed to treat this type of psoriasis. A larger area may require light therapy.

Chronic psoriasis can be treated based on the type of psoriasis. Although the root cause cannot be eliminated, chronic psoriasis treatment methods might help alleviate symptoms of the condition. The above pointers can help one to decide what should be done in case they experience any of the symptoms.

What Are the Normal Blood Sugar Levels
What Are the Normal Blood Sugar Levels

Who does not enjoy some sugary treats from time to time? A lot of people talk about having a sweet tooth. It is not always related to a preference for chocolates or sweets. Some people are habituated to eating something sweet after a filling meal, while others munch on candy to kill time. Today, almost all foods have some amount of sugar in them. Having a sweet tooth is not bad, but when it affects your health, you need to take it seriously. Everyone must try to maintain a normal range of blood sugar levels. One should not consume products with too much sugar or salt. They should also avoid eating sweet or salty foods over long durations as both of these items can gravely affect their health. No one wants to spend the rest of their lives swallowing pills and restricting their diet. They can avoid this by controlling the amount of sugar they consume and following a healthy and active lifestyle.

Diabetes in the country
Today, a large number of people in the country have diabetes. According to a report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 100 million Americans have diabetes or prediabetes. Approximately 30 million citizens, i.e., 9.4% of the total population suffers from diabetes, and approximately 84.1 million citizens have prediabetes. If prediabetic patients do not treat this condition, they will go on to develop the disease within five years. This is a grave illness and reports suggests that the number of patients will rise steadily over time. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the country, and this number is only expected to rise with time. Some areas of the country have a higher rate of mortality than others, while other areas are affected on a larger basis. How do you know whether you have this condition? What are normal blood sugar levels? Check out the following pointers to find the answers to all of these questions:

Normal blood sugar ranges
You may never know if you have diabetes or are in the prediabetes stage if you do not take frequent tests. You need to be aware of the normal blood sugar range to determine whether you have this condition. In today’s age, most of us consume processed food and follow unhealthy diets. So, it is better to get tested in advance to be safe. Knowledge of the normal blood sugar range is the key to managing diabetes by yourself. The levels of blood sugar will vary for people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People who do not have diabetes will have a normal blood sugar range. It is vital to know about these ranges so that you can test your blood sugar levels at home on your own. These figures will also help you discuss your condition with a doctor. Let’s have a look at the normal blood sugar ranges:

You need to test your blood sugar ranges before and after a meal.
For non-diabetic patients, the normal range before a meal is 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L. This figure changes slightly after taking a meal, and the permissible level for non-diabetic patients is under 7.8 mmol/L.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of this disease. Several people in the country have this disease. People with type 2 diabetes must have a blood sugar range of 4 to 7 mmol/L before taking a meal, and less than 8.5 mmol/L after taking a meal.
Type 1 diabetes is another form of the disease which adversely affects the health of patients. The normal range of blood sugar levels of type 1 diabetes patients is 5 to 7 mmol/L. Patients’ blood sugar level should be between 4 to 7 mmol/L before a meal, and in the range of 5 to 9 mmol/L after consuming a meal.
Children with type 1 diabetes have a slightly different permissible range. The normal blood sugar levels upon waking up should be between 4 to 7 mmol/L. The range is the same before meals, while it increases to 5 to 9 mmol/L after a meal.
So, the next time you test your blood sugar levels, keep these ranges in mind. If your levels are higher than usual, consult a doctor as soon as possible.

Why it is important to maintain a normal blood sugar range?
One should not take diabetes lightly. Patients must protect themselves from the side effects of this condition by maintaining a normal blood sugar range. It is vital to control the intake of sugar as excessive intake over long durations can lead to several health complications such as kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, retinal disease, and nerve damage. You can control this condition by making some adjustments to your diet. In this way, you can avoid complications related to diabetes as well. Small improvements in your lifestyle can make a difference in improving and maintaining your overall health.